Yes No Language

In “No,” Ben Zimmer’s latest contribution to his On Language column (, March 15, 2010), yes and no are examined through the lens of Congressional discourse and pop culture. Zimmer lists some associations:

yes no, agreement opposition, positivity negativity, acceptance denial, getting to yes, party of no

From my personal collection, here are a few greatest hits of yes and no memorabilia:

A (lost) sticker bearing the phrase, “The Land of Yes.” It was produced by Trillium Press, which is now SF Electric Works. The motto conveyed a commitment to helping artists realize their projects.

Ugo Rodinone’s “Hell Yes!” architectural signage for the New Museum. Rounded text + rainbow stripes + in an arc = unabashed enthusiasm.

My first word was “no”—a troubling fact for an aspiring optimist—but it turns out, I’m not alone. Zimmer informs:

…the power of no is even more primal, perhaps because it is so often among the first words that English speakers learn as children.

Zimmer also discusses yes and no in terms of the “up/down” vote, an orientational metaphor with its own set of associations, as examined by linguists George Lakoff and Mark Johnson in Metaphors We Live By (U. of Chicago Press, 1980):

happy sad and other dyads

Some of these orientational metaphors cohere. For example, a person with high status might expect being in positions of control more often. Good, virtue and life/health are obviously linked. But it would be a mistake to assume that all of the concepts associated with up or down are necessarily coherent. Lakoff and Johnson describe a discrepancy between two metaphors associated with up and down, unknown (up) and known (down) does not cohere with finished (up, as in “the crate’s buttoned up” or “the shoot’s wrapped up”) and unfinished (down).

To this I might add:

transcendent mundane, concept material, ephemeral quotidian

Visual Thesaurus

I love this thesaurus for the visually inclined. The concept map is a brilliant way to group similar meanings and identify specific words.


hug it out!

Making exhibitions requires a lot of teamwork, so I’ve been practicing sharing epic high-fives. Just the other day, K, R and I shared a spinning jump triple. That momentary gesture turned a feeling of mild accomplishment into floaty elation.

In “Evidence That Little Touches Do Mean So Much,” (, February 22, 2010) Benedict Carey examines the psychology and neuroscience of meaningful touches.

Momentary touches, [researchers] say — whether an exuberant high five, a warm hand on the shoulder, or a creepy touch to the arm — can communicate an even wider range of emotion than gestures or expressions, and sometimes do so more quickly and accurately than words….

“We used to think that touch only served to intensify communicated emotions,” Dr. [Matthew] Hertenstein [a psychologist at DePauw University in Indiana] said. Now it turns out to be “a much more differentiated signaling system than we had imagined.

As an artist working with installation and phenomenology, I’m really interested in embodied experiences. As Lakoff & Johnson explain in “Metaphors We Live By,” metaphors are not merely linguistic devices, but cognitive tools; we think using metaphors grounded in our physical experience.

High-fives express shared excitement or accomplishment (“Nice one!”). It conveys that this experience is good, and yay for sharing it with me. It is harmless hedonism, of taking pleasure in the present. It’s dorky, hip, sweet, and maybe a little ironic, but maybe also infused with feel-good, unabashed enthusiasm (like Ugo Rodinone’s “Hell Yes!”). I hope I never feel too old to share a high-five.

As usual, I’d like to participate in an art world characterized by community and reciprocity. Supportive touches express mutuality; maybe more curators, artists, critics and collectors should be hugging it out.

…In the brain, prefrontal areas, which help regulate emotion, can relax, freeing them for another of their primary purposes: problem solving. In effect, the body interprets a supportive touch as “I’ll share the load.”

“We think that humans build relationships precisely for this reason, to distribute problem solving across brains,” said James A. Coan, a a psychologist at the University of Virginia. “We are wired to literally share the processing load, and this is the signal we’re getting when we receive support through touch.”

Carey also quotes Dacher Keltner, a professor of psychology at the University of California, Berkeley, and the author of “Born to Be Good: The Science of a Meaningful Life.” Incidentally, Keltner’s mentor was San Francisco psychologist Paul Ekman, who was profiled by Malcolm Gladwell in an eye-opening article about emotions and facial expressions (“The Naked Face,” New Yorker, 2002). If you’ve heard of the wide, genuine, impossible-to-fake Duchenne smile, then you’ve been touched by Ekman’s influence.

Art & Development


mirrorsblack (2009, wood, mirrors, spraypaint, lights, casters, 36x66x36 inches / 1×1.6×1 m) is a new sculpture I’ve made for Bellwether, the inaugural exhibition at Southern Exposure’s new headquarters.

In line with my previous work exploring optimism and pessimism using metaphors like light and dark and how art objects mediate relationships between artists and viewers, mirrorsblack literalizes the attempt to create phenomenological installations wherein viewers experience “mimetic engulfment” and the “dissolution of the self” (Claire Bishop, Installation Art: A Critical History, Routledge, 2005).

Literalizing concepts has been a way for me to point out my skepticism about the expectation that art should be transcendent or ineffable. By putting the viewer (or at least, his or her partial reflections) into the work, I’m also exploring whose expectations and meanings are projected onto the art object.

My engagement with this work was further stimulated by a recent article in the Boston Globe (Drake Bennet, “Thinking Literally,” Sept. 29, 2009) on psychologists’ research on how metaphors are not just a way humans communicate, but are in fact keys to the way we think. An implication of this experiment-based research seems to be that — as phenomenological artists have intuited for some time — while philosophers have valued abstract thought, and and conventionally-minded art patrons might prefer visual stimuli, bodily experience is no less a realm of cognition and the conveyance of meaning.

mirrorsblack suggests my ambiguity about the future, and the sense that one can never get a complete picture from any singular perspective.

Bellwether opens this Friday and Saturday with grand opening parties, including a block party with artist-led events. The exhibition continues through December 12, 2009. For more information, visit